Ecologic Institute

Ecologic Institute conducts inter- and transdisciplinary environmental research and has offices in Berlin and Brussels. In its role as a private, independent organization, Ecologic Institute is dedicated to the preparation of relevant sociopolitical aspects of sustainability research and contributing new knowledge to environmental policy. Innovative research methods, an orientation on practice and a transdisciplinary approach ensure scientific excellent and social relevance. The work done at Ecologic Institute covers the spectrum of environmental topics and includes the integration of environment-related issues into other political spheres.

Vrije Universiteit Brussel

The Brussels School of Governance (BSoG), at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) carries out interdisciplinary research, organises higher education programmes and delivers a broad range of academic services in various policy-relevant fields, including energy & environment, security & diplomacy, migration & diversity, and digitalisation & democracy. The Centre for Environment, Economy and Energy (C3E), the centre primarily involved in the 4i-TRACTION project,  operates at the crossroads of today’s turbulent transitions, which constitute key governance challenges and opportunities in Europe and worldwide.  It is specifically renowned for its internationally leading work on the international and European governance of the climate and energy transition.

The research team at the C3E at the Brussels school of governance will be involved in many facets of the project. In particular they are responsible for the scientific coordination and lead WP5: Governance for a climate-neutral EU. Moreover the BSoG will participate in the crosscutting "4i"-lead by steering the analysis of Innovation and substantially contributing to the analysis of Integration.

Climate Analytics

Climate Analytics is a non-profit organisation, established in 2008. We are based in Berlin with offices in New York; Lomé, Togo; Perth, Australia; and Trinidad & Tobagowith staff and associates across Europe, South America, Africa and Asia. The organisation’s main mission is to synthesise and advance scientific knowledge in the area of climate change.Climate Analytics is a team of scientists and policy analysts with long experience in the international climate change debate. The team is backed by its own and co-developed science-based models to assess and synthesise climate science. By linking scientific and policy analysis, we provide state-of-the-art solutions to global and national climate change policy challenges. Climate Analytics has established itself as an interface between science, policy and practice with outstanding international networks.

Climate Analytics will lead on developing key elements of the project, including the concept of transformation and developing a scenario for the EU reflecting this concept in the respective four "i's". Climate Analytics will assess the transformation and enablers in Paris Agreement compatible pathways, and develop robust transformation scenarios for the EU (WP1).

Climate Analytics will also lead work on integrating the international dimension of greenhouse gas neutrality in the project, through identification of good practice policies from non-EU countries and adapting them to EU’s circumstances; and assessing the global impact of the EU’s climate action (WP3).


The Institute for Climate Economics (I4CE) is a Paris-based think tank with expertise in economics and finance with the mission to support action against climate change. Through its applied research, the Institute contributes to the debate on climate-related policies. It also publishes research to support financial institutions, businesses and territories in the fight against climate change and that assists with the incorporation of climate issues into their activities and operations.

I4CE is a registered non-profit organisation, founded by the French National Promotional Bank Caisse des Dépôts and the French Development Agency.

In 4i-TRACTION I4CE will be mainly in charge of two case studies (ex-post and ex-ante) assessing the impact of different approaches to green financial regulation. The case studies are then used as an input for developing policy avenues capable of transforming Investment flows. I4CE is also in charge of ensuring the overall consistency between the understanding of the four "i's" across all deliverables.

University of Eastern Finland

The University of Eastern Finland is the most multidisciplinary university in Finland. Our high standard of interdisciplinary research and education respond to global challenges and build a sustainable future.

The Center for Climate Change, Energy and Environmental Law (CCEEL) is based at the Law School. CCEEL aims to produce high-quality and policy-relevant research in its areas of expertise. The Center’s research activities are carried out by three four groups, focusing respectively on: climate change and international environmental law; energy law; water law; and Finnish national environmental law. Director of the CCEEL, Professor Kati Kulovesi, leads the research activities of UEF in the 4i-TRACTION project and is the topical lead for one of the four "i’s", integration. The UEF has a significant role in WP5 on EU climate governance.

The Netherlands
Wageningen University & Research

Wageningen University, part of Wageningen University and Research, focuses on the theme ‘healthy food and living environment’. We do so by working closely together with international partners, governments and the business community. Our research is fundamental and curiosity-driven yet strongly geared toward application in practice and in our educational programmes. Our mission is ‘To explore the potential of nature to improve the quality of life’.

The Environmental Economics and Natural Resources (ENR) group of Wageningen University is part of the Social Sciences Group of Wageningen University. Staff at ENR publishes in top general interest and environmental economics scientific journals such as Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Nature Climate Change, Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Energy Economics, and Review of Environmental Economics and Policy. The goal of ENR is to contribute to the construction of low-carbon, climate resilient social-ecological systems and a sustainable and circular economy. Its core areas of research are (1) the economics of energy transitions, climate policy and the cost of (in)action; (2) human behavior, technological progress and the role of economic policy instruments; (3) the economics of resilient and sustainable social-ecological systems.

Our main contributions to 4i-TRACTION are twofold. First, an evaluation of Dutch policies for public charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. It allows us to study both Innovation and Infrastructure. Second, we contribute to the ex ante assessment of selected core policy instruments that need to be enacted in the 2020s to address the four "i’s", achieve the relevant goals for 2030, 2040 and 2050 (climate and energy, adaptation/resilience, competitiveness and employment, SDGs), and maximize relevant co-benefits (e.g. health).


Wise Europa

WiseEuropa is an independent think-tank and research organization based in Warsaw that undertakes a strategic reflection on European politics, foreign policy and economy. The Institute employs a unique research toolkit, which enables to unite quantitative and qualitative approach through the application of: statistical and econometric methods as well as macroeconomic and system modelling in combination with sociological, political and institutional analysis. The research experience in the fields of national, European and global socio-economic and institutional policies, digital economy and innovation as well as energy, climate and environmental policies allows WiseEuropa to offer analytical, consulting and communication services on the cross-cutting policy issues.

WiseEuropa will lead Work Package 2 which includes an ex-post assessment of EU climate policy in 2005-2020. In addition, WiseEuropa will contribute to WP1, WP4, WP5 and WP6 as well as to four "i’s" in fields innovation and investment.

University of Vigo - Research Group in Energy, Innovation and Environment

REDE is a Research Group of the School of Economics and Business Administration of University of Vigo with expertise in two main areas: Energy and Environmental Economics and Process Improvement & Innovation. Currently, 35 members compose REDE: 26 of them are doctors, 4 are postdocs and five are PhD students. REDE gathers people with a multidisciplinary background.

The main topics of interest in the field of climate change and energy economics and linked to the project are climate change (environmental policies and intervention instruments), taxation (energy taxation, energy efficiency and energy safety), sustainability (decarbonization and dematerialization of industrial processes and logistics) as well as energy markets (demand analysis, efficiency, regulation and policies).

In 4i-TRACTION, REDE will contribute to WPs 1, 2, 4 and 6. In WP1 and 4 Rede will provide scientific insight to define the scenarios and the future pathways. In WP 2 Rede will lead a case study on Spain focusing on environmental taxes. In WP6 Rede will be involved in stakeholder engagement and provide its previous experience in participatory processes and co-creation techniques.

The Netherlands
CE Delft

CE Delft is an independent research and consultancy organisation specialised in developing innovative solutions to environmental problems. CE Delft is not only skilled across a wide range of environmental topics, but also familiar with the associated policy networks: trade and industry, government and non-governmental organisations alike. With its unique approach and helicopter view of the terrain on which it operates, CE Delft is also in a position to breathe new life into discussions that have run aground. The solutions CE Delft delivers are technologically robust, economically prudent, politically feasible and socially equitable.

CE Delft is a tight-knit think-tank geared to projects where quality is of the essence, projects that benefit from a multidisciplinary approach, with the required skills directly at hand, as well as people accustomed to working from a broad perspective. Eager to share its knowledge and understanding, CE Delft makes its research findings publicly available whenever it can.

Established in 1978 as a not-for-profit organisation, CE Delft remains financially independent and unsubsidised to this day. A wide range of clients - government, industry and NGOs, Dutch as well as international - have already found their way to CE Delft. They recognise the organisation's expertise and experience and prize its independent attitude.

For 4i-TRACTION, CE Delft is the topic lead infrastructure. They further conduct an ex-post quantitative analysis of European climate policy, develop pathways for future transformative climate and energy policy and provide leadership for an ex-ante assessment of core policy instruments for the future policy mix.